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Outside the Boxall


This is an important case on costs on settled Judicial Reviews. Following on Bahta & Ors, R (on the application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department & Ors [2011] EWCA Civ 895 [Our report] and Lord Jackson’s view on JR costs, the Court of Appeal in M v London Borough of Croydon [2012] EWCA Civ 595 has given general guidance for awarding costs. The principles should also apply to the equally troublesome area of costs in settled s.204 Housing Act 1996 Homeless appeals.

The actual judicial review that gave rise to this hearing was an age assessment case which was conceded by the Local Authority following a second expert’s report. A consent order was agreed, but no agreement on costs. Submissions on paper resulted in a first instance order that:

‘Having considered the submissions on costs made by both parties and having regard to the principles referred to by the court in R (Boxall) v Waltham Forest LBC (2001) 4 CCLR 258 and to the caveat added by Hallett LJ in R (Scott) v Hackney LBC [2009] EWCA Civ 217 at 51 – to the effect that a judge must not be tempted too readily to adopt the default position of making no order for costs – I accept that this is the just outcome here. As has been submitted for the defendant this is not a case where the case was obvious from the outset. And in view of the dynamic development of this area of the law while the claim was live and the burdens on the defendant which are referred to in paragraph 12 of its submissions I do not consider the defendant’s conduct in the proceedings has been such as to justify an award of costs being made against it.’

The Claimant appealed, arguing that:
(i) The judge failed to address the appellant’s primary argument that costs should follow the event.
(ii) The judge misdirected himself in refusing to award costs because the outcome was not obvious from the outset.

Permission to appeal was given in light of Bahta.

I’ll turn to the specific points on this case at the end of this note, including the basis of the arguments. However, the primary interest is in what amounts to guidance set out by the Court of Appeal on costs in settled Judicial Reviews.

The Master of Rolls at paras 60 to 63, says:

60. Thus, in Administrative Court cases, just as in other civil litigation, particularly where a claim has been settled, there is, in my view, a sharp difference between (i) a case where a claimant has been wholly successful whether following a contested hearing or pursuant to a settlement, and (ii) a case where he has only succeeded in part following a contested hearing, or pursuant to a settlement, and (iii) a case where there has been some compromise which does not actually reflect the claimant’s claims. While in every case, the allocation of costs will depend on the specific facts, there are some points which can be made about these different types of case.

61. In case (i), it is hard to see why the claimant should not recover all his costs, unless there is some good reason to the contrary. Whether pursuant to judgment following a contested hearing, or by virtue of a settlement, the claimant can, at least absent special circumstances, say that he has been vindicated, and, as the successful party, that he should recover his costs. In the latter case, the defendants can no doubt say that they were realistic in settling, and should not be penalised in costs, but the answer to that point is that the defendants should, on that basis, have settled before the proceedings were issued: that is one of the main points of the pre-action protocols. Ultimately, it seems to me that Bahta was decided on this basis.

62. In case (ii), when deciding how to allocate liability for costs after a trial, the court will normally determine questions such as how reasonable the claimant was in pursuing the unsuccessful claim, how important it was compared with the successful claim, and how much the costs were increased as a result of the claimant pursuing the unsuccessful claim. Given that there will have been a hearing, the court will be in a reasonably good position to make findings on such questions. However, where there has been a settlement, the court will, at least normally, be in a significantly worse position to make findings on such issues than where the case has been fought out. In many such cases, the court will be able to form a view as to the appropriate costs order based on such issues; in other cases, it will be much more difficult. I would accept the argument that, where the parties have settled the claimant’s substantive claims on the basis that he succeeds in part, but only in part, there is often much to be said for concluding that there is no order for costs. That I think was the approach adopted in Scott. However, where there is not a clear winner, so much would depend on the particular facts. In some such cases, it may help to consider who would have won if the matter had proceeded to trial, as, if it is tolerably clear, it may, for instance support or undermine the contention that one of the two claims was stronger than the other. Boxall appears to have been such case.

63. In case (iii), the court is often unable to gauge whether there is a successful party in any respect, and, if so, who it is. In such cases, therefore, there is an even more powerful argument that the default position should be no order for costs. However, in some such cases, it may well be sensible to look at the underlying claims and inquire whether it was tolerably clear who would have won if the matter had not settled. If it is, then that may well strongly support the contention that the party who would have won did better out of the settlement, and therefore did win.

And Stanley Burnton LJ states at paras 75 to 77:

75. The consequence of our decision should be a greater willingness on the part of the parties to judicial review proceedings, at first instance and on appeal, to agree not only the substantive provision of the order to be made by the Court, but also the issue of costs. Settlements in which the question of costs is left to be determined by the Court at a later date are common, and perhaps too common. Parties can no longer assume that the likely order is no order as to costs, even where one party or another has conceded the whole, or substantially the whole, of the other side’s case.

76. A successful negotiation of costs issues is likely to be cost effective, saving the costs of subsequent written submissions and saving the time of the judge who is required to determine costs. It is in both parties’ interests to address the question of comprehensive settlement as early as possible.

77. Where the parties are unable to agree costs, and they are left to be determined by the Court, it is important that both the work and costs involved in preparing the parties’ submissions on costs, and the material the judge is asked to consider, are proportionate to the amount at stake. No order for costs will be the default order when the judge cannot without disproportionate expenditure of judicial time, if at all, fairly and sensibly make an order in favour of either party. This is not to say that there are not cases where the merits can be determined and no order for costs can be seen to be the appropriate order; but in such cases that order is not a default order, but an order made on the merits.

In this particular case, with quite a complex history, the Defendant had argued that
i) the respondents settled on the assumption that there would be no order for costs.
ii) There had been a change in the perceived legal position as a result of the Supreme Court’s decision in R (A) v Croydon in November 2009.
ii) There was a substantial amount of evidence and the issue was diffcult, including the change in the weight to be given to Dr Birch’s views, following the judgment in R (A) v Croydon and R (WK) v Kent County Council [2009] EWHC 939 (Admin).

This being in effect a restatement of the Boxall based arguments that had been successful at first instance.

The Court of Appeal’s view was summed up by Stanley Burton LJ as follows:

The respondents’ maintenance of their position was entirely reasonable while the law was as it was generally thought to be before the decision of the Supreme Court in R (A) v Croydon. That decision led eventually to the order His Honour Judge McMullen QC of 26 July 2010. The respondents then had to reconsider their case, if they had not already done so. The appellant’s reliance on the evidence of Dr Birch may have been ill-advised, but ultimately it was his case, based on his account of his age, that prevailed. The respondent agreed not merely to re-assess his age, but that his age was as he contended it to be: i.e., they conceded the entirety of his claim.

Costs to the Claimant.

The judgment refers to Sir Rupert Jackson’s cost review, where he states

‘The Boxall approach made eminently good sense at the time that case was decided. However, now that there is an extremely sensible protocol in place for judicial review claims, I consider the Boxall approach needs modification, essentially for the reasons which have been urged upon me ….
. . . in any judicial review case where the claimant has complied with the protocol, if the defendant settles the claim after (rather than before) issue by conceding any material part of the relief sought, then the normal order should be that the defendant pays the claimant’s costs. A rule along these lines would not prevent the court from making a different order in those cases where particular circumstances warranted a different costs order.’

The Judgment also highlights the increasing number of cases settled save for costs, where the courts have had to deal with written submissions on costs. This increase was clearly something of which the Court of Appeal disapproved.

The result, being an extension of Bahta but falling perhaps just a little short of the Jackson proposals, is very useful for claimants. It makes clear that the usual Defendant arguments (e.g. that settlement was a practical or commercial decision, that it had nothing to do with the merits of the claim and that it was not at all clear that the Claimant would win), will not be sufficient to result in no order as to costs. The usual principles of civil litigation costs will apply. Boxall is effectively distinguished as being a case where the Claimant had only succeeded on a lesser part of the Claim.

The Defendant’s frequent tactic offer of a settlement on the basis of no order as to costs was always difficult for the Claimant’s solicitors to resist, given the client’s interests. However, this judgment now puts any settlement negotiations on the basis that the default position is that the Claimant should have their costs and that the Defendant will have to have a very strong reason to seek to depart from that.

The same principle should apply to s.204 appeals, as they are based on judicial review principles. There seems to be no good argument why a s.204 appeal should not have the ‘ordinary civil litigation principles’ apply equally.

Congratulations to Robert Latham and Hansen Palomares for the appellant on this result and for finally bringing some sanity to this costs issue.

Giles Peaker is a solicitor and partner in the Housing and Public Law team at Anthony Gold Solicitors in South London. You can find him on Linkedin and on Twitter. Known as NL round these parts.


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